How to add ing and s/es/ies to verbs in english

To discuss about ing and s/es rule, first of all you have to know about syllable, stress, constant and vowel. I am going to show you syllable with an example:

Have a look at the verb Happen
Now pronounce the verb above. That verb will be divided into two parts in your mouth if I am correct. These are Hap and pen
So the verb Happen is called two syllables verb. I think you have a clear idea about syllable. Lets discuss about stress. In the example above two syllables are not stressed equially in your mouth. You are actually pronouncing Hap and en instead of Hap and pen
For this reason

Hap is called stressed syllable And
pen is called non stressed syllable

Constant: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z
Vowel: a, e, i, o, u


Rule 1 : If finishing letter is e, it will be replaced with ing. Example: Live = Living

Rule 2 : If verb ends with consant(1) + vowel + consant(2) and last syllable is stressed, constant(2) will be double before adding ing. Example: Stop = Stopping

Here, verb Stop ends with t, o , p = consant(1) + vowel + consant(2)
verb Stop has two syllables = S and top. What is happening in your mouth. top is properly pronounced but S is not properly pronounced. So,
S is called non stressed syllable And
top is called stressed syllable

So, last syllable is stressed.

Rule 3 : If verb ends with consant(1) + vowel + consant(2) and last syllable is not stressed, then simply add ing. Example: Happen = Happening

Verbs ends with W, X, Y always not stressed last syllable.
Fix = Fixing; Enjoy = Enjoying

Rule 4 : If verb ends with ie, it will be replaced with ying. Example: Lie = Lying ; Die = Dying

Rule 5 : If verb ends with consant(1) + vowel + L , then simply add ing for US English and ling for UK English. Example: Travel = Travelling [UK] ; Travel = Traveling [US]


Rule 1 : If verb ends with s, ss, z, sh, ch, x, (single o) , then it will be added es. Example: Box = Boxes; Go = Goes; Boo = Boos (reason: not single o)

Rule 2 : If verb ends with constant + y, then y will be replaced with ies. Example: Carry = Carries; Try = Tries; Play = Plays [because a is vowel]

Rule 3 : For all other cases e, at the end of the verb simply add s. Example: Rig = Rigs